The oscillator circuit of a quartz crystal timepiece is provided with a tuning capacitor device consisting of a stepped variable capacitor and a continuously variable capacitor connected in parallel with each other and in series with said quartz crystal.

In a circuit particularly suited for producing oscillating signals and including a parallel coupled continuous variable capacitor and a step variable capacitor, the improvement comprising said step variable capacitor, and continuously variable capacitor being mounted to a base plate, first and second lower electrodes mounted on said base plate, and means mounted on said base plate electrically connecting said lower electrodes, said step variable capacitor being defined by a fixed dielectric mounted on said first lower electrode, and a plurality of upper electrodes mounted on said fixed dielectric, each of said electrodes having a different area overlapping said lower electrodes, a rotatable electrically conductive first switch contact member selectively positionable in electrical engagement with one of said upper electrodes, and said continuously variable capacitor being defined by an electrically conductive shaft rotatably mounted on said base plate out of electrical engagement with said first and second lower electrodes; a rotatable dielectric mounted for rotation with said shaft partly overlapping said second lower electrodes; a rotatable upper electrode supported by said rotatable dielectric in variable overlapping relation to said second lower electrode and electrically connected to shaft; said switch contact being supported by and electrically connected to said electrically conductive shaft.

1.Large capacitance to volume ratio, smaller size, good stability, wide operating temperature range, long reliable operating life.

2.Extensively used in miniaturized equipment and computers. Available in both polarized and un polarized varieties.

3.Solid tantalum capacitors have much better characteristics than their wet counterparts.

A membrane potentiometer uses a conductive membrane that is deformed by a sliding element to contact a resistor voltage divider. Linearity can range from 0.5% to 5% depending on the material, design and manufacturing process. The repeat accuracy is typically between 0.1mm and 1.0mm with a theoretically infinite resolution. The service life of these types of potentiometers is typically 1 million to 20 million cycles depending on the materials used during manufacturing and the actuation method; contact and contactless (magnetic) methods are available. Many different material variations are available such as PET(foil), FR4, and Kapton. Membrane potentiometer manuafacturers offer linear, rotary, and application-specific variations. The linear versions can range from 9mm to 1000mm in length and the rotary versions range from 0° to 360°(multi-turn), with each having a height of 0.5mm. Membrane potentiometers can be used for position sensing.

This circuit's operation is easily understood one half-cycle at a time. Consider the first half-cycle, when the source voltage polarity is positive (+) on top and negative (-) on bottom. At this time, only the top diode is conducting; the bottom diode is blocking current, and the load “sees” the first half of the sine wave, positive on top and negative on bottom. Only the top half of the transformer's secondary winding carries current during this half-cycle as in Figure below.

This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is measured in farads, symbol F. However 1F is very large, so prefixes are used to show the smaller values.

Three prefixes (multipliers) are used, ?? (micro), n (nano) and p (pico):

?? means 10-6 (millionth), so 1000000??F = 1F
n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth), so 1000nF = 1??F
p means 10-12 (million-millionth), so 1000pF = 1nF
Capacitor values can be very difficult to find because there are many types of capacitor with different labelling systems!

Variable Electrical parameters are those that the Design Engineer must specify when selecting a Quartz Crystal device for any particular application.

1. Package Type: Will the package be Through Hole or Surface Mount, and are there size constraints with either.

2. Frequency

3. Load Capacitance: The specified Load Capacitance is dependent on the Resonance Mode required in the application . For Series resonance, no Load Capacitance is required. For Parallel Resonance, the Load Capacitance specified by the Design Engineer will be used to calibrate the Quartz Crystal thereby effecting the major operating characteristics of the device, including initial Frequency Tolerance.

4. Frequency Tolerance: At 25 degree Celsius, an amount of initial frequency deviation acceptable for the application is required. Tighter specifications of Frequency Tolerance lower yield in Quartz Crystal Blank production thereby serving to increase production costs.

5. Stability: Over the Operating Temperature Range, an amount of total deviation acceptable for the application. Tighter specifications of Stability lower yield in Quartz Crystal Blank production thereby serving to increase production costs.

6. Operating Temperature: Standard Operating Temperature ranges are generally considered as -20-+70 degrees Celsius (considered "commercial" Operating Temperature), and -40-+85 degrees Celsius (considered "Industrial" Operating Temperature) Other Operating temperature ranges are available and should be specified.

Diodes based on organic chemicals have been produced using low temperature processes. Hole rich and electron rich conductive polymers may be ink jet printed in layers. Most of the research and development is of the organic LED (OLED). However, development of inexpensive printable organic RFID (radio frequency identification) tags is on going. In this effort, a pentacene organic rectifier has been operated at 50 MHz. Rectification to 800 MHz is a development goal. An inexpensive metal insulator metal (MIM) diode acting like a back-to-back zener diode clipper has been delveloped. Also, a tunnel diode like device has been fabricated.

Surge Arresters conduct lightning surges around the protected insulator so that a lightning flashover is not created. They are designed to be installed functionally in parallel with the line insulator. The arrester conducts the lightning surges around the protected insulator so that a subsequent 60 Hz fault on the circuit is not created. The arrester becomes a low ohmic path for the surge as voltage across it increases. When the voltage returns to normal, the arrester once again returns to a high ohmic device with only microamps of leakage current.

If an arrester experiences a surge higher than it is capable of handling without failure, and it is failure, equipped with an isolating device, it will isolating device, disconnect during the event.

After the surge is over, and fault current starts to flow, the disconnector senses the fault and ignites the powder built into the device.

The disconnecting device is not an interrupter so during this rare event, an interrupting device must clear the circuit.

Kingtronics supply series kinds of Capacitors and Diodes .All this products are sighed in our Kt Trademark, For the Kt Kingtronics trademark, We can give you the first class service. Because Kt Kingtronics has the following Strength and Advantage:

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A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output for either polarity of input. When used in its most common application, for conversion of an alternating current (AC) input into direct current a (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input, resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding.

The essential feature of a diode bridge is that the polarity of the output is the same regardless of the polarity at the input. The diode bridge circuit is also known as the Graetz circuit after its inventor, physicist Leo Graetz.

In actuality, free electrons in a conductor nearly always flow from the negative to the positive pole. In the vast majority of applications, however, the actual direction of current flow is irrelevant. Therefore, in the discussion below the conventional model is retained.

Prior to the availability of integrated circuits, a bridge rectifier was constructed from "discrete components", i.e., separate diodes. Since about 1950, a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in a bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings.

For many applications, especially with single phase AC where the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC output, the addition of a capacitor may be desired because the bridge alone supplies an output of fixed polarity but continuously varying or "pulsating" magnitude, an attribute commonly referred to as "ripple".

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Kingtronics International Company was established in 1995 located in Dongguan City of China to handle all sales & marketing for factories located in Chengdu, Sichuan and Zhaoqing, Guangdong, China. In 1990, we established the first factory to produce trimming potentiometer and in 1999 we built up new factory in Zhao Qing, Guangdong. Now with around 850 workers, Kingtronics produce trimming potentiometers, dipped tantalum capacitors, multilayer ceramic capacitors, and diode & bridge rectifier. We sell good quality under our brand Kingtronics, and Kt, King, Kingtronics are our three trademarks. All our products are RoHS compliant, and our bridge rectifier have UL approval. Please visit our Products page, you could please download all our PDF datasheet and find cross reference for our Trimming Potentiometer and capacitors.

Tantalum and Ceramic Capacitors Cross Reference ↓ Download
Diodes & Rectifiers List(PDF: 97KB) ↓ Download
Trimming Potentiometer Cross Reference ↓Download

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